The validation objects used to investigate reconstruction accuracy as a function of the orientation of the endoscope are shown in Fig. 1 and comprise five parts of a liver (flat, convex, with discontinuity, with a hole, with fatty tissue) acquired with a camera distance of 5.5 cm and an angle of approximately 30° between the surface normal and the optical axis of the endoscope. A surgical coagulator (Autocon II 400 electrosurgical unit, Karl Storz GmbH & Co. KG, Tuttlingen, Germany) was used to create smoke (at 40 Watts) using a part of the liver that was located underneath the camera, as shown in Fig. 2. Note that this procedure only allows an angled pose of the endoscope. This yielded a total of n = 10 surfaces (five with and five without smoke). Details can be found in .
Figure 1: Different shapes of the liver: flat (a), convex (b), with discontinuity (c), with hole (d), with fat (e). The circles represent the region of interest, and the markers were used for registration with computed tomography (CT) data (cf. Fig. 2).
Figure 2: Extraction of a sphere-shaped region (red) from the reference computed tomography (CT) surface.
Figure 3: Creation of smoke with a surgical coagulator
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 Maier-Hein L, Groch A, Bartoli A, Bodenstedt S, Boissonnat G, Chang PL, Clancy NT, Elson DS, Haase S, Heim E, Hornegger J, Jannin P, Kenngott H, Kilgus T, Müller-Stich B, Oladokun D, Röhl S, Dos Santos TR, Schlemmer HP, Seitel A, Speidel S, Wagner M, Stoyanov D. Comparative Validation of Single-shot Optical Techniques for Laparoscopic 3D Surface Reconstruction. IEEE T Med Imag (in press), 2014